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Ad valorem equivalent (AVE)
An AVE is a tariff presented as a percentage of the value of goods cleared through customs. It is the equivalent of a corresponding specific tariff measure based on unit quantities such as weight, number or volume. There are several methodologies for calculating AVEs. The method chosen depends on the intended application of the data. Most important to the process of calculating an AVE is the way the Unit Value of the product is calculated. The unit value is the value of each unit quantity imported of a product. It is based on the total value of imports of that product divided by the quantity of imports.
Ad valorem equivalent (AVE) calculated in MAcMap
In Market Access Map, all non ad valorem (NAV) applied tariffs are converted to ad valorem equivalents (AVEs) according to the unit value (UV) based method. This means that AVEs are calculated by dividing a given NAV tariff by the unit value. For more information on this calculation method, see the methodology.
Ad valorem tariff
An ad valorem tariff is a tariff expressed as a percentage of the value of goods cleared through customs. For example, 15 percent ad valorem tariff means 15 percent of the value of the entered merchandise.
Additional taxes and charges
Additional taxes and charges are additional charges, which are levied on imported goods in addition to customs duties and surcharges and which have no internal equivalents. They include tax on foreign exchange transactions, stamp taxes, import licence fees, consular invoice fees, statistical taxes and tax on transport facilities. See multi-agency classifications of NTMs.
Administrative pricing
Administrative pricing refers to the fixing of import prices by the authorities of the importing country by taking into account the domestic prices of the producer or consumer (e. g. establishing floor and ceiling price limits; reverting to determined international market values). There may be different price fixing methods, such as minimum import prices or prices set according to a reference. See also Price control measures.
Advance import deposit
An advance import deposit is a requirement that the importer should deposit a percentage of the value of the import transaction before receiving the goods (e.g. a payment of 50% of the transaction value is required three months before the expected arrival of the goods to the port of entry). See Finance measures.
Advance payment of customs duties
Advance payment of customs duties is a requirement to pay all or part of the customs duties in advance. However, no interest is paid on these advance payments (e.g. payment of 100% of the estimated customs duty is required three months before the expected arrival of the goods to the port of entry). See multi-agency classifications of NTMs.
Advance payment requirements
Advance payment requirements related to the value of the import transaction and/or related import taxes. These payments are made at the time an application is lodged, or when an import licence is issued. See Finance measures.
African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA)
AGOA passed as part of The Trade and Development Act of 2000 and provides beneficiary countries in Sub-Saharan Africa with enhanced access to the U.S. market for a list of products. Originally set to expire in 2008, the AGOA Acceleration Act of 2004 extended the legislation to 2015. In 2014, 39 countries have been designated as AGOA eligible.
African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries
The ACP countries are a group of countries with preferential trading relations with the EU under the former Lomé Treaty now called the Cotonou Agreement. There are currently 79 ACP countries.
Andean Community (CAN)
The CAN (Comunidad Andina) is an arrangement between Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru for the coordination of economic policies including the formation of a free trade zone in the Andean region. The trade bloc was established in 1969 with the signing of Cartagena Agreement and was called the Andean Pact until 1996.
Anti-competitive measures
Anti-competitive measures are levied to grant exclusive or special preferences or privileges to one or more limited group of economic operators. They include for example restrictive import channels (e.g. Imports of salt and tobacco are reserved for the respective state trading companies) and compulsory national service (e.g. a requirement that imports must be carried by a national shipping company).
Anti-dumping duties
Anti-dumping duties are levied on certain goods originating from specific trading partner(s) to offset the dumping margin. Duty rates are generally enterprise-specific.
Anti-dumping measure
An anti-dumping measures is a counter measure taken against a dumping action of an exporter. It is considered that dumping takes place when a product is introduced into the commerce of an importing country at less than its normal value, i.e. if the export price of the product exported is less than the comparable price, in the ordinary course of trade, for the like product when destined for consumption in the exporting country. See multi-agency classifications of NTMs.
Applied tariffs
Applied tariffs or applied tariff rates are considered to be the tariff rates applied by a customs administration on imported goods. They are the rates published by national customs authorities for duty administration purposes. These rates are often lower than the WTO bound rates.
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
APEC is a forum aimed at facilitating economic growth, cooperation, trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific region. It has 21 members and works to reduce tariffs and other trade barriers across the Asia-Pacific region.
Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement
The Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement is a regional trade agreement between Bangladesh, China, India, Republic of Korea, Lao People's Democratic Republic and Sri Lanka. The agreement was formed in 1975 and was originally called the Bangkok Agreement (until 2005).
Asociación Latinoamericana de Integración (ALADI)
ALADI (English: Latin American Integration Association, LAILA) is the largest Latin-American group of integration. It has twelve member countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. The 1980 Montevideo Treaty (TM80) is the global legal framework that constitutes and rules ALADI and was signed on August 12th 1980. ALADI promotes the creation of an area of economic preferences in the region, aiming at a Latin-American common market.
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
ASEAN, established in 1967, is a regional political and economic organization comprising: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. 
Bangkok Agreement
Basel Convention
Also called Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal. The Basel Convention lays down rules to control, at an international level, transboundary movements of wastes hazardous to human health and the environment, and their disposal.
Bilateral agreement
A bilateral agreement is an agreement between two parties, as opposed to a multilateral agreement, which is among several parties.
Bilateral quotas
Quotas reserved for a specific exporting country (e.g. maximum of 1 million tons of wheat may be imported from Country A).
Binding coverage
Binding coverage is the percentage of product lines with an agreed bound tariff rates.
The CAIRNS Group is a group of agricultural exporting nations comprising Australia, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand and Uruguay which was established to develop a common negotiating position for the Uruguay round. It aims to achieve fair trade in agricultural exports.
Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI)
CBI provides for tariff exemptions or reductions for most products from 17 participating countries in Central America and the Caribbean region. The CBI trade preferences are not subject to annual reviews but countries can lose their CBI benefits under certain conditions. This program was enacted by the United States as the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act. This Act became effective on January 1, 1984.
Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act (CBTPA)
The CBTPA is a U.S. law which came into force in October 2000, outlining enhanced trade preferences and eligibility requirements for the 17 beneficiary countries of the Caribbean Basin region.
Caribbean Common Market (CCM)
Caribbean Community (CARICOM)
In 1972, Commonwealth Caribbean leaders decided to transform the Caribbean Free Trade Association (CARIFTA) into a Common Market and establish the Caribbean Community, of which the Common Market would be an integral part. Current members of CARICOM are: Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Suriname, Saint Lucia, St. Christopher and Nevis, St. Vincent and the Grenadines and Trinidad and Tobago.
Cash margin requirement
A cash margin requirement is a regulation to deposit the total amount of the transaction value in a foreign currency, or a specified part of it, in a commercial bank, before the opening of a letter of credit (e. g. deposit of 100% of the transaction value is required at the designated commercial bank). See also Finance measures.
Central African Economic and Customs Union
Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CAEMC)
CAEMC is a regional trade agreement comprising Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial, Guinea and Gabon.
Central American Common Market (CACM)
CACM is a preferential trade arrangement between Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama and Costa Rica.
Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA)
CEFTA is a free trade agreement initiated in 2006 among Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia and the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo.
Closer Economic Relations Agreement (CER)
The CER (also known as The Australia New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement or ANZCERTA) between Australia and New Zealandis the main instrument governing economic relations between the two countries. It entered into force in 1983 and was by design intended to be an outward-looking trade agreement. Its central provision is the creation of a World Trade Organization (WTO)-consistent Free Trade Area consisting of Australia and New Zealand. The CER Agreement was built on a series of preferential trade agreements between Australia and New Zealand, including the 1966 New Zealand Australia Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
Common external tariff
A tariff rate that is applied uniformly by a common market or customs union to imports from countries outside the union. The European Common market for example is a free internal trade area with a common external tariff applied to products imported from non-member countries. 
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)
COMESA was formed in 1994 to replace the former Preferential Trade Area (PTA). Its main focus is on the formation of a large economic and trading unit that is capable of overcoming some of the barriers that are faced by individual states. COMESA consists of 19 countries in Eastern and Southern Africa. In order to increase trade liberalisation and customs cooperation members aim among others to establish a customs union, establish a common external tariff and cooperate in customs procedures.
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
CIS is a free association among former Soviet states. It was formed in 1991 and its members include: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Republic of Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.
Communauté économique et monétaire de l'Afrique Centrale (CEMAC)
Compound tariff
A compound tariff is a tariff that combines an ad valorem duty to which is added or subtracted a specific duty (e.g.: 10% plus $2 per kg; 20% less $2 per kg).
COMTRADE database
The United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics Database (COMTRADE)  contains trade statistics managed by the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD). UN COMTRADE contains detailed imports and exports statistics reported by statistical authorities of most countries. The data goes back to 1962.
Cost, Insurance and Freight (CIF)
CIF stands for the price of a traded good including transport cost and insurance. See incoterms for further details.
Cotonou Agreement
The Cotonou Agreement, also called the ACP-EC partnership agreement, is an agreement between the members of the African, Caribbean and Pacific group of states and the European Community and its members states. It was signed in Cotonou, Benin, on 23 June 2000. The agreement covers many aspects including trade cooperation.
Countervailing measures
Countervailing measures are intended to offset any direct or indirect subsidy granted by authorities in the exporting country. These may take the form of extra duty ("countervailing duty") or price undertakings against subsidized imports that are found to be hurting domestic producers. See multi-agency classifications of NTMs.
Custom surcharges
Custom surcharges are an ad hoc tax imposed in addition to customs tariff to raise fiscal revenues or to protect domestic industries  (also referred to as surtax or additional duty).
Customs duty
Custom duties are tariffs levied at the border on goods entering or leaving the country. These charges are specified in the national tariff schedule. 
Customs union
A customs union is a group of countries that adopt free trade (zero tariffs and no other restrictions on trade) on trade among themselves, and that also, on each product, agree to levy the same tariff on imports from outside the group. Equivalent to a free trade agreement plus a common external tariff.
Decreed customs valuation
A decreed customs valuation is a practice to determine the value of goods by a decree for the purpose of imposition of customs duties and other charges. It is applied as a mean to avoid fraud or to protect domestic industry. The decreed value de facto transforms an ad-valorem duty into a specific duty (e. g. the so-called "valeur mercuriale" in Francophone countries). Decreed customs valuation can be appealed according to the WTO rules.
Developed country
The term developed country is used to describe countries that have a high level of development according to certain criteria. Which criteria, and which countries are classified as being developed, is a contentious issue. Economic criteria have tended to dominate discussions. One such criterion is income per capita; countries with high gross domestic product (GDP) per capita would thus be described as developed countries. Another economic criterion is industrialization; countries in which the tertiary and quaternary sectors of industry dominate would thus be described as developed. More recently another measure, the Human Development Index (HDI), which combines an economic measure, national income, with other measures, indices for life expectancy and education has become prominent. This criterion would define developed countries as those with a very high (HDI) rating. However, many anomalies exist when determining "developed" status by whichever measure is used.
Developing country
Developing country is a term generally used to describe a nation with a low level of material well-being. Since no single definition of the term developed country is recognized internationally, the levels of development may vary widely within so-called developing countries.
Development Assistance Committee (DAC)
For 50 years now, the OECD DAC has grouped the world’s main donors, defining and monitoring global standards in key areas of development. The Development Co-operation Directorate (DCD) contributes to developing policies for better lives through transparent data on development finance, and improved development co-operation practices and policies. Together, DAC and DCD have played a role in forging major international development commitments, including the Millennium Development Goals and the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness.
Development Co-operation Directorate (DCD)
Direct data

Data that was directly reported by a country and entered into the relevant database. No calculations were performed to approximate this data.

Dumping occurs when goods are exported at a price lower than their normal value, generally meaning they are exported for less than they are sold in the domestic market or third-country markets, or at less than production cost
East African Community (EAC)
EAC is the regional intergovernmental organisation of Kenya, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi with its headquarters in Arusha, Tanzania.
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
ECOWAS is a regional group of 15 countries and was founded in 1975. Its mission is to promote economic integration in all fields of economic activity; particularly industry, transport, telecommunications, energy, agriculture, natural resources, commerce, monetary and financial matters as well as social and cultural issues. It's members are Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Côte d’Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo.
Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO)
ECO is an intergovernmental regional organization established in 1985 by Iran, Pakistan and Turkey for the purpose of promoting economic, technical and cultural cooperation among the member states.
Economic Partnership Agreements (EPA)
Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) are trade and development agreements negotiated between the EU and African, Caribbean and Pacific regions engaged in a regional economic integration process.
Effective rate of protection
A measure of the protection provided to an industry by the entire structure of tariffs, taking into account the effects of tariffs on inputs as well as on outputs.

Endogeneity exists when the value of a variable depends on other variables within the model i.e. there is a loop of causality between the independent and dependent variables.

Endogeneity bias in tariff aggregation
Endogeneity bias occures when aggregation of tariffs from the HS 6-digit level up to the HS 4 and HS 2-digit level takes into account import values. In theory, tariffs should be aggregated for imports occurring under a hypothetical situation of free trade. As this is not the case in practice, tariff aggregations, using national imports as weights, cause a distorted perspective on the level of protection since these imports depend on the tariff. That is, a high tariff generates limited imports and therefore the tariff contribution to the overall protection level of the country is reduced. A low tariff produces the reverse effect. So, using national imports as weights leads to an underestimation of the protection level of a country. Market Access Map mitigates this endogeneity bias by weighting the imports of a country by the trade pattern of a Reference Group to which the country belongs. That is, the Reference Group’s imports of the product from the world is used as the weighting.
Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC)
EAEC is a regional trade agreement between Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation and Tajikistan. In force since May 30, 2001, EAEC seeks to promote the process of creating a customs union and common economic space between member states by introducing a common customs tariff, harmonizing non tariff regulation and introducing common management of customs services.
Europe from 1995 (EU15)
In 1995, Austria, Finland and Sweden joined the EU.
Europe from 2004 (EU25)
In 2004, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovak Republic and Slovenia joined the EU.
Europe from 2007 (EU27)
On January 1st, 2007, Romania and Bulgaria joined the EU.
Europe from 2013 (EU28)
On July 1st, 2013, Croatia joined the EU.
European Economic Area (EEA)
The EEA is composed of the 28 member states of the European Union and three of the four members of EFTA (Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway). It allows the EFTA States to participate in the Internal Market on the basis of their application of Internal Market relevant acquits. All new relevant community legislation is dynamically incorporated into the agreement and thus applies throughout the EEA, ensuring the homogeneity of the Internal Market.
European Economic Community (EEC)
The EEC Treaty, signed in Rome in 1957, brings together France, Germany, Italy and the Benelux countries in a community whose aim is to achieve integration via trade with a view to economic expansion. After the Treaty of Maastricht the EEC became the European Community, reflecting the determination of the Member States to expand the Community's powers to non-economic domains.
European Free Trade Association (EFTA)
EFTA is an intergovernmental organisation set up for the promotion of free trade and economic integration to the benefit of its four member states Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland.
European Union (EU)
The EU is an economic and political partnership between 28 European countries. Growing from an economic union in 1958, it has evolved into an organisation spanning policy areas, from development aid to environment. A name change from the EEC to the European Union (EU) in 1993 reflected this. The single or 'internal' market is the EU's main economic engine, enabling most goods, services, money and people to move freely. For more information see
Everything But Arms (EBA)
EBA is a European Union initiative for duty-free and quota-free access to all products except arms and ammunition originating in least developed countries. 
Export restrictions
Export restrictions are restrictions on goods exported to a specific country or countries by the government of the exporting country for reasons such as a shortage of goods in the domestic market, regulating domestic prices, avoiding antidumping measures or for political reasons.
Final bound rates

Final bound rates are ceiling rates as listed at the end of a WTO members’ “schedule” or lists of commitments (adapted from WTO definition). The rates of a tariff schedule may change while the commitment is in effect, and only the final rates at the end of the commitment period make up final bound rates.

Finance measures
Finance measures are intended to regulate the access to and cost of foreign exchange for imports and define the terms of payment. They may increase import costs in the same manner as tariff measures.
Free on Board (FOB)
Free on Board (FOB) is a commercial term indicating that the seller of a good is responsible for the payment of transportation of the merchandise to the port of shipment and for loading cost. The buyer pays freight, insurance, unloading and transportation cost from the arrival port to destination. See Incoterms for further details.
Free trade agreement (FTA)
A negotiated treaty among two or more countries to form a free trade area. As a result, tariffs are reduced to 0% . However, FTAs agreed between countries may not cover all traded products. Therefore, it is possible that MFN rates or General tariffs (in the case of non-WTO members) continue to apply for certain products between two countries that have signed an FTA.  Note that an FTA can also be implemented gradually so the applied tariff levied on a product covered by the FTA can exceed 0% during the implementation phase. 
Free trade area
A group of countries that adopt free trade (zero tariffs and no other policy restrictions) among themselves, while not necessarily changing the barriers that each member country has on trade with the countries outside the group.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
GATT is a multilateral treaty regulating trade policy. It has been superseded by the WTO. GATT 1947 is the official legal term for the old (pre-1994) version of the GATT. GATT 1994 is the official legal term for the new version of the General Agreement, incorporated into the WTO, and including GATT 1947.
General tariff
The general tariff is a duty on a product levied against imports from a country that is not granted most favored nation status and is not subject to a preferential arrangement. 
Generalized System of Preferences (GSP)
A system of tariff preferences for developing countries, by which developed countries let certain manufactured and semi-manufactured imports from developing countries enter at lower tariffs than the same products from developed countries.
Global quota
global quota is an import quota that specifies the permitted quantity of imports from all sources combined. This may be without regard to country of origin, and thus available on a first-come-first-served basis, or it may be allocated to specific suppliers.
Global Trade Analysis Project Consortium (GTAP)
GTAP was established in 1993 as a global network of researchers and policy makers conducting quantitative analysis of international policy issues. GTAP is coordinated by the Center for Global Trade Analysis in Purdue University's Department of Agricultural Economics. GTAP's goal is to improve the quality of quantitative analysis of global economic issues within an economy-wide framework. 
Government procurement
Government procurement is the purchase of goods and services by the government and by state-owned enterprises.
Group of 20 (G20)
The G20 is a forum for international cooperation on the most important aspects of the international economic and financial agenda. It brings together the world’s major advanced and emerging economies: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Republic of Korea, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States of America and the European Union.
Group of 7 (G7)
The G7 is the group of seven leading industrial countries: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States of America.
Group of 77 (G77)
The G77 was established on 15 June 1964 by seventy-seven developing countries signatories of the “Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Countries” issued at the end of the first session of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) in Geneva. It now has 133 members. The G77 is the intergovernmental organization of developing countries in the United Nations that promotes their collective economic interests and enhances their joint negotiating capacity.
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)
The GCC was established in 1981. It consists of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. These members have established a free trade area covering industrial and agricultural products; but not petroleum products. A customs union was established in 2003.
Harmonized System (HS)
The Harmonized System is an international nomenclature for the classification of products. It allows participating countries to classify traded goods on a common basis for customs purposes. At the international level, the Harmonised System for classifying goods is a six-digit code system. The HS comprises approximately 5000 article/product descriptions that appear as headings and subheadings, arranged in 97 chapters, grouped in 21 sections. The six digits can be broken down into three parts. The first two digits (HS-2) identify the chapter the goods are classified in, e.g. 09 = Coffee, Tea, Maté and Spices. The next two digits (HS-4) identify groupings within that chapter, e.g. 09.02 = Tea, whether or not flavoured. The next two digits (HS-6) are even more specific, e.g. 09.02.10 Green tea (not fermented) in immediate packings of a content not exceeding 3 kg. Up to the HS-6 digit level, different countries classification codes are identical. Beyond this, countries are free to introduce national distinctions for tariffs by adding more digits to make the HS classification of products even more specific. This greater level of specificity is referred as the national tariff line level. For example the United States of America adds another four digits to its exports and imports to classify them in greater depth. The Harmonised System was formally known as the Harmonised Commodity Description and Coding System. It was developed by the World Customs Organization and has been adopted by most trading nations
Hygienic requirements
Hygienic requirements are regulations related to food quality, composition and safety, which are usually based on hygienic and good manufacturing practices, recognized methods of analysis and sampling: The requirements may be applied on the final product or on the production processes. Example: requirements on water quality, use of detergents and hygienic quality of equipment in the cow-milking farm.
Import monitoring
Import monitoring is a measure to monitor the import value and volume of specified products. It may be applied with the purpose of signalling concern over import surges.
Incoterms or International Commercial Terms are internationally standardised definitions and rules of interpretation for most common commercial terms. These rules are designed to clarify tasks, costs and risks involved in the delivery of goods from sellers to buyers and are therefore commonly used in sales contracts.Created by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), they are widely recognized by governments, businesses and legal authorities. 
Initial Negotiating Rights (INR)
Initial Negotiating Rights (INR) is the right of a WTO member to ask for tariff concessions by another member in a WTO negotiating round even though it is not the principal supplier. See the WTO website.
Inside quota tariff rate (IQTR)
The tariff rate applicable to a product imported within the limits of a tariff quota volume.
Inspection requirement
An inspection requirement is a requirement for product inspection in the importing country. It may be performed by public or private entities. It is similar to testing, but it does not include a laboratory testing (e.g. a requirement to inspect animals or plant parts before entry is allowed).
Intellectual property
Intellectual property are products of the mind, such as inventions, works of art, music and writing.
Internal taxes and charges levied on imports
GATT Article III permits the application of internal taxes and charges on imports so long as they are treated in the same way as domestic production. The general sales tax levied on imports is the equivalent of those internal taxes that are applied to all or most products. There are three types of internal taxes: sales tax, which is an ad valorem tax based on the gross receipt of sales of goods; turnover tax, which is a tax imposed at more than one level of production and distribution and is based on grow receipts, resulting in a cumulation of taxes; value added tax, which is a modified turnover tax based on the net value added instead of on the gross receipts, avoiding the cumulation of taxes and not affecting the price structure and the allocation of resources. The excise tax levied on imports is the equivalent of the excise tax on domestic products, which is an internal tax imposed on selected products, usually of a luxurious or non-essential nature, such as alcoholic beverages and tobacco. This tax is levied separate from, and in addition to, the general sales taxes. Sumptuary taxes, luxury taxes, commodity or consumption taxes all have the same nature as the excise tax. In some countries the consumption tax is similar to a sales tax, being applicable to all products, while in other countries, generally applied taxes are sometimes called excise taxes.
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
The IMF is an international organization of 188 member countries. It was established to promote international monetary cooperation, exchange stability, and orderly exchange arrangements; to foster economic growth and high levels of employment; and to provide temporary financial assistance to countries to help ease balance of payments adjustment.
International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC)
The International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) is a classification structure of economic activities based on a set of internationally agreed concepts, definitions and principles. In ISIC, economic activities, or "industries", are divided in a 4-level structure of mutually exclusive categories. The highest level categories, called sections, are alphabetically coded (i.e. section C for "Manufacturing"). More detailed levels are numbered: two-digit divisions, three-digit groups and four-digit classes. The classification is used to classify statistical units according to the main economic activity they engage in.
International Trade Centre (ITC)
The International Trade Centre (ITC) is a Geneva based technical cooperation agency founded in 1964. ITC's mission is to foster sustainable economic development and contribute to achieving the Millennium Development Goals in developing countries and countries with economies in transition through trade and international business development.
Labelling requirement
Labelling requirements are measures defining the information which should be provided to the consumer. Labelling is any written, electronic, or graphic communication on the consumer packaging or on a separate but associated label (e.g. labels that specify the storage conditions; 5 degree C maximum, or room temperature for dry foods). See multi-agency classifications of NTMs.
Latin American Integration Association (LAIA)
League of Arab States
The Leage of Arab States is an association of mainly Arabic-speaking countries founded in Cairo in 1945 to strengthen ties among the members, coordinate policies among them, and promote their common interests. As of July 2014, it had 22 members: Algeria,  Bahrain, Comoros,  Djibouti,  Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya,  Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, State of Palestine, Qatar,  Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria (participation was suspended in November 2011), Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen.
Least developed countries (LDC)
Least developed countries (LDCs) are defined by the Committee for Development Policy (CDP) as low-income countries suffering from the most severe structural impediments to sustainable development. These handicaps are manifested in a low level of human resource development and a high level of structural economic vulnerability. As a subsidiary body of the UN Economic and Social Council, CDP is mandated to review the category of LDCs every 3 years. As of 2011, CDP uses 3 main criteria to identify LDCs: gross national income (GNI) per capita, the Human Assets Index (HAI) and the Economic Vulnerability Index (EVI). You can view the list of LDCs here.
Licence combined with or replaced by special import authorization
Licence combined with or replaced by special import authorization means that a special import authorization required, in addition to or instead of, a licence issued by the main licensing body (usually the Ministry of Trade). This authorization or a requirement for an inscription in a register is required by a specialized authority which is coordinating the sector of the domestic economy related to the concerned products (e. g. A special import authorization from the Ministry of Agriculture is required to import rice). See multi-agency classifications of NTMs .
Licence for specific use
A licence for specified use is a licence granted only for imports of products to be used for pre-specified purpose. Normally granted for use in operations generating anticipated benefit in important domains of the economy (e.g. licence to import steel is granted only if it is used for the construction of a bridge). See multi-agency classifications of NTMs .
Licence linked with local production
A licence linked with local production is a licence granted only for imports of products with linkage to local production (e.g. licence to import coal is granted only if it is used for the production of electricity). See multi-agency classifications of NTMs .
Licence linked with non-official foreign exchange
A licence linked with non-official foreign exchange is a licence granted only if non-official foreign exchange is used for the import payment. See multi-agency classifications of NTMs .
Licence with no specific ex-ante criteria
A licence with no specific ex-ante criteria is a licence issued at the discretion of the issuing authority. It may also be referred to as a discretionary licence (e.g. imports of automobiles are subject to discretionary licence).
Linear reduction formula
Linear reduction formula is a formula for achieving linear tariff cuts. The reduction in tariffs is the size of reduction linearly related to the initial tariff: %Δt = a + bt, where %Δt is the percent reduction in the tariff, t is the initial tariff, and a,b are constants.
Linear tariff cut
A linear tariff cut is a reduction in tariffs with the size of reduction linearly related to the initial tariff. The cut usually takes place by a given percentage, of equal magnitude, across whole classes of products, with or without exceptions for products deemed to be sensitive. Sometimes the linear tariff cut is referred to as horizontal reduction of tariffs, across-the-board reduction of tariffs or equal percentage reduction of tariffs. The linear reduction formula is one of the possible formula approaches. The simplest linear cut, a horizontal reduction, reduces all tariffs by the same percentage.
Local content measures
Local content measures are requirement to use certain minimum levels of locally made component, restricting the level of importing components (e.g. Imports of clothing is allowed only if more than 50% of the materials used are originating from the importing country). See multi-agency classifications of NTMs .
Marking requirements
Marking requirements are measures defining the information for transport and customs that the packaging of goods should carry (e.g. country of origin, weight, special symbols for dangerous substances, etc). See multi-agency classifications of NTMs .
Melanesian Spearhead Group Trade Agreement (MSG Trade Agreement)
The MSG Trade Agreement is a preferential trade arrangement between Melanesian states concluded in 1999. Its membership is composed of 4 states (Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands & Vanuatu) and 1 party (the Kanak and Socialist National Liberation Front of New Caledonia).
Members of the Kimberley Process
The Kimberley Process is a joint governments, industry and civil society initiative to stem the flow of conflict diamonds – rough diamonds used by rebel movements to finance wars against legitimate governments. The trade in these illicit stones has fuelled decades of devastating conflicts in countries such as Angola, Cote d'Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Sierra Leone.
Mercado Común del Sur (MERCOSUR)
MERCOSUR (South American Common Market) is a customs union covering trade in goods except sugar and automobiles. Members are Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela have joined Mercosur as Associate members. MERCOSUR objectives include the free transit of all goods, services and the factors of production, and the lifting of non-tariff restrictions.
Mirror data
Mirror trade data are partner country statistics used to approximate non-reported data. Mirror data have shortcomings. For example, it does not cover trade with other non-reporting countries, and inverts the reporting standards by valuing exports in CIF terms and imports in FOB terms.
Mixed tariff
mixed tariff is a rate of duty that is based on a conditional choice between an ad valorem duty and a specific duty, subject to an upper (ceiling) and/or a lower (floor) limit (e.g.: 30% or £2 per kg, whatever is the highest).
Montreal Protocol
Agreed in 1987 following the discovery of the “ozone hole”, the Montreal Protocol protects the ozone layer from damage caused by certain industrial chemicals known as ozone-depleting substances (ODS). 
Most favoured nation tariffs (MFN tariffs)

MFN tariffs are the tariffs applied by WTO members to goods imported from other WTO member countries. WTO members have the option to extend the MFN rates to countries that are not WTO members. For non WTO members the application of these rates may be a requirement of a bilateral trade agreement. Article 1 of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) lays down the principle of Most Favoured Nation treatment (MFN). The MFN clause states that a member of the GATT must grant equal treatment to goods and services from all GATT members. Every time a WTO member improves the benefits that it gives to one trading partner, it has to give the same "best" treatment to all other WTO members. The MFN principle applies to all tariffs - whether or not they have been subject to negotiations between GATT members - as well as to all policy measures affecting imports or exports. However, there are some exceptions to the MFN principle:

GATT article XXIV allows countries that are seeking regional integration to reduce their tariffs below the MFN rate if the following conditions are met: tariff and other barriers to trade among the contractors of the agreement must be eliminated substantially for all products within a reasonable period of time; regional integration must not worsen the market access conditions granted to other WTO members previous to the enforcement of the agreement.

Derogations to the MFN treatment are also conceded to developing countries, in respect of specific conditions, by the signatories of the GATT (i.e. Contracting Parties) Decision of 25 June 1971, relating to the establishment of "Generalized, non-reciprocal and non-discriminatory preferences beneficial to the developing countries" (BISD 18S/24) and the Decision of 28 November 1979 on "Differential and More Favourable Treatment, Reciprocity, and Fuller Participation of Developing Countries" (L/4903), also known as the "Enabling Clause”.

Another exception derives from the Marrakesh Agreement (establishing the World Trade Organization) article XIII which, under specific conditions, allows for the case of non-application of MFN treatment between original Members of the WTO, which were contracting parties to GATT 1947, and countries that made their accession later (article XII).

Most favoured nation treatment (MFN treatment)
MFN treatment is the rule, usually established through a trade agreement, that a country gives each of the trading partners with which it has concluded relevant trade agreements the best treatment it gives to any of them.
Multi-agency classification of NTMs
The multi-agency NTM classification was prepared by a group of technical experts from eight international organizations – FAO, IMF, ITC, OECD, UNCTAD, UNIDO, the World Bank and the WTO in 2008, with subsequent revisions in 2009 and 2012. This classification first categorizes NTMs into two broad categories, technical and non-technical measures, which are further divided into 16 alphabetically coded chapters. Technical measures (Chapters A and B) refer to product-specific properties such as characteristics, technical specifications and production process of a product. It also includes conformity assessment methods, which affirm the compliance of a product to a given requirement. These technical regulations are generally aimed at ensuring quality and food safety, environmental protection and national security, and at protecting animal and plant health. Non-technical measures (Chapters C to O) do not refer to product-specific properties but to trade requirements, such as shipping requirements, custom formalities, trade rules, taxation policies, etc. Chapters are subdivided into single digit branches e.g. "A3: Labelling, marking and packaging requirements". Finally, to further increase the level of detail, these branches are divided into leafs by adding another 2 digits to the classification code e.g. "A310: Labelling requirements".
Multi-column tariff
multi-column tariff is a tariff schedule that discriminates between the various trading partners. Tariff rates in the first column might be reserved for countries receiving only the general tariff rate and the second column may display the favoured nation (MFN) treatment. The third and additional columns would contain the rates applicable to various preferential trade arrangements, such as free-trade area partners or those given to developing countries under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP).
Multilateral trade agreements
Multilateral agreements are intergovernmental agreements aimed at expanding and liberalising international trade under non-discriminatory, predictable and transparent conditions set out in an array of rights and obligations.
Multilateral trading system
The multilateral trading system is a non discriminatory arrangement for international trade which came into existence with the GATT in 1947 and which is now represented by the WTO system.
Multiple exchange rates
Multiple exchange rates are varying exchange rates for imports, depending on the product category. Usually, the official rate is reserved for essential commodities while the other goods must be paid at commercial rates or occasionally by buying foreign exchange through auctions (e.g. only the payment for infant food and staple food imports may be made at the official exchange rate). See multi-agency classifications of NTMs.
National tariff line (NTL)
National Tariff Line codes refer to the classification codes, applied to merchandise goods by individual countries, that are longer than the HS six digit level. Countries are free to introduce national distinctions for tariffs and many other purposes. The national tariff line codes are based on the HS system but are longer than six digits. For example, the six digit HS code 010120 refers to Asses, mules and hinnies, live, where as the US National Tariff line code 010120.10 refers to live purebred breeding asses, 010120.20 refers to live asses other than purebred breeding asses and 010120.30 refers to mules and hinnies imported for immediate slaughter.
Non-ad valorem tariffs (NAV)
A non ad-valorem tariff is a tariff that is not expressed as a percentage of the price or value. This can refert to a specific, compound, mixed or some other form of a tariff. These other forms can be determined by complex technical factors. The duty can be based on the percentage content of the agricultural component (e. g. sugar, milk, alcohol content, etc.) or its strength (e.g. the degree of sweetness).
Non-automatic licensing
A non-automatic licence is an import licence which is not granted automatically. The licence may either be issued on a discretionary basis or may require specific criteria to be met before it is granted. See multi-agency classifications of NTMs .
Non-tariff barriers (NTB)
NTBs are measures negatively affecting international trade.
Non-tariff measures (NTMs)
Non-tariff measures include market requirements, taxes and procedures that countries apply to products that are imported or exported. These can include for example health regulations on food quality, rules about packaging, minimum safety standards for manufactured products, internal taxes that are levied in addition to import duties and many more. Market Access Map provides information on a wide range of regulations applied by countries as well as links, where available, to the responsible institutions and / or the regulations themselves to help users further research the product and process-related compliance issues involved in exporting or importing. See multi-agency classifications of NTMs .
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
NAFTA is a free trade agreement established in 1994. Its members are Canada, Mexico and the United States of America. 
Nuisance tariff
nuisance tariff is a tariff so low that it costs the government more to collect it than the revenue it generates. 
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
The OECD was established in 1961 as the successor to the Organisation for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC). It's members account for more than 59% of global GDP and three-quarters of world trade. The OECD currently has 34 member countries.
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)
The OIC (formerly Organization of the Islamic Conference) is the second largest intergovernmental organization after the United Nations, with a membership of 57 states spread over four continents. The Organization was established in Rabat, Kingdom of Morocco on 25 September 1969.
Outside quota tariff rate (OQTR)
A OQTR is the tariff rate applicable to products imported in excess of a tariff quota volume. This rate is meant to discourage imports above the quota limit. It is usually much higher than the one applied to imports within the quota.
Overseas Countries and Territories (OCT)
There are 21 so-called overseas countries and Territories (OCTs) which depend constitutionally on four of the European Union (EU) Member States: Denmark, France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. OCT nationals are European citizens. However, these countries do not form part of EU territory. Accordingly, they are not directly subject to EU law, but they benefit from associate status conferred on them by the Treaty of Lisbon. The aim of this association is principally to contribute to their economic and social development.
Pacific Islands Forum
The Pacific Island Forum represents Heads of Government of all the independent and self-governing Pacific Island countries, Australia and New Zealand. Since 1971 it has provided member nations with the opportunity to express their joint political views and to cooperate in areas of political and economic concern. 
Packaging requirements
Packaging requirements are measures regulating the mode in which goods must or cannot be packed, or defining the packaging materials to be used (e.g. Restricted use of PVC films for food packaging). See multi-agency classifications of NTMs.
Para-tariff measures
Para-tariff measures are measures that increase the cost of imports in a similar manner to tariffs. These measures include customs surcharges, additional taxes and charges (e.g. tax on foreign exchange transactions, stamp tax), service charges, internal taxes and charges levied on imports (e.g. general sales taxes, excise taxes) and decreed customs valuation. See multi-agency classifications of NTMs.
Favours extended to some trading partners, usually in the form of lower tariffs or non-application of some non-tariff measures.
Preferential tariffs
Preferential tariffs are tariffs lower than the most favoured nation tariffs, levied on imports from a country that is being given favoured treatment through a preferential trading arrangement or under unilateral tariff preferences. Note that preferential rates agreed between countries may not cover all traded products.
Preferential trade arrangement
Preferential trade arrangements are trade arrangements under which a party agrees, either unilaterally or as a result of negotiations, to accord one or more other parties preferential treatment in trade in goods or services. 
Pre-shipment inspection
Pre-shipment inspection are a physical inspection of goods before they are shipped in the country of export, which establishes the exact nature of the goods. The inspection assures that the goods are in accordance with the accompanying documents that specify their customs tariff code, quality, quantity and price (e. g. a pre-shipment inspection of textile imports by a third party for verification of colours and types of materials). See multi-agency classifications of NTMs.
Price control measures
Price control measures are measures implemented to control the prices of imported articles in order to support the domestic price of certain products when the import price of these goods are lower, establish the domestic price of certain products because of price fluctuation in domestic markets or price instability in a foreign market and counteract the damage resulting from the occurrence of "unfair" foreign trade practices. See <a href="" target="_blank">multi-agency classifications of NTMs</a>.
Private standards
The term private standards as used by WTO, FAO or UNIDO relates to standards developed by non-governmental entities. These include individual firms, industry organisations, and non-governmental organisations, among others. As such, compliance to these standards is not legally required by national governments or multilateral regulations as opposed to public standards. Private standards vary widely in their objectives and scope.
Prohibition of foreign exchange allocation
Prohibition of foreign exchange allocation means that no official foreign exchange allocations available to pay for imports (e.g. foreign exchange is not allocated for imports of luxury products such as motor vehicles, TV sets, jewelleries). See <a href="" target="_blank">multi-agency classifications of NTMs</a>.
A non-tariff measure used to control imports. There are total prohibitions (e. g. Import of "motor vehicle with cylinder under 1500cc" is not allowed to encourage domestic production), Suspensions of issuance of licences (e.g. Issuance of licence to import "motor vehicle with cylinder under 1500cc" is suspended until further notice.), seasonal prohibitions (e.g. Import of strawberries is not allowed from March to June each year.), temporary prohibitions (e.g. Import of certain fish is prohibited with immediate effect until the end of the current season), prohibitions of products infringing patents or intellectual property rights (e.g. Import of imitation brand handbags is prohibited) and prohibitions for non-economic reasons (e.g. imports of books and magazines displaying pornographic pictures are prohibited). See <a href="" target="_blank">multi-agency classifications of NTMs</a>.
Protocol on Trade Negotiations (PTN)
The PTN is a protocol relating to Trade Negotiations among Developing Countries. There are currently 15 member countries.
Quantity control measures
Quantity control measures are aimed at restraining the quantity of goods that can be imported, regardless of whether they come from different sources or one specific supplier. These measures can take the form of restrictive licensing, fixing of a predetermined quota, or through prohibitions. See multi-agency classifications of NTMs.
Quarantine requirement
A quarantine requirement is a requirement to detain or isolate animals, plants or their products on arrival at a port or place for a given period in order to prevent the spread of infectious or contagious disease, or contamination (e.g. quarantine requirements for live dogs; plant quarantine measures to terminate or restrict the spread of harmful organisms and mitigate the adverse impacts thereof). See multi-agency classifications of NTMs.
Quotas are explicit limits on the quantity of a good that can be imported or exported during a specified time period. Such limits are usually measured by physical quantity but sometimes by value. A quota may be applied on a selective basis, with varying limits set according to the country of origin or destination or bilaterally (to a single trading partner), or on a global basis (to all countries) that specifies only the total limit and thus tends to benefit more efficient suppliers. Quotas are frequently administered through a system of licensing. Non-automatic licensing usually the means for administering a quota. GATT Article XI prohibits the use of quantitative restrictions, subject to specific exceptions. For example Article XIX permits quotas to safeguard certain industries from damage by rapidly rising imports. See multi-agency classifications of NTMs.
Quotas linked with the purchase of local goods
Quotas linked with purchase of local goods are quotas defined as a percentage of the value of goods purchased locally (i.e. in the importing country) by the exporter (e.g. imports of refined oil in volume are limited to the volume of crude petroleum purchased locally). See multi-agency classifications of NTMs.
Refundable deposits for sensitive product categories
Refundable deposits for sensitive product categories are a requirement to pay a certain deposit which is refunded when the used product or its container is returned to a collection system (e.g. $100 deposit is required for each refrigerator, which will be refunded when brought in for recycling after use). See multi-agency classifications of NTMs.
Regional trade agreement (RTA)
Regional trade agreements (RTAs) are reciprocal trade agreements between two or more partners.
Regulations concerning terms of payment for imports
Regulations concerning terms of payment for imports are regulations related to conditions of payment for imports and for obtaining and using credit to finance imports (e.g. no more than 50% of the transaction value can be paid in advance of the arrival of goods to the port of entry).
Rules of Origin (ROO)
Laws, regulations and administrative procedures which determine a product’s country of origin. A decision by a customs authority on origin can determine whether a shipment falls within a quota limitation, qualifies for a tariff preference or is affected by an anti-dumping duty. These rules can vary from country to country.
SAARC Preferential Trading Arrangement (SAPTA)
SAPTA has been established between the members of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). SAPTA consists of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. SAPTA entered into force in 1995. 
Safeguard measures
A WTO member may take a safeguard measures (i.e., restrict imports of a product temporarily) to protect a specific domestic industry from an increase in imports of any product which is causing, or which is threatening to cause, serious injury to the industry. See multi-agency classifications of NTMs.
Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures (SPS)
Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures are laws, decrees, regulations, requirements, standards and procedures to protect human, animal or plant life or health from certain risks such as the establishment or spread of pests, diseases, disease-carrying organisms or disease-causing organisms, risks from additives, contaminants, toxins, disease causing organisms in foods, beverages or feedstuffs. See multi-agency classifications of NTMs.
In Market Access Map, a scenario is defined as a way in which a trade agreement changes tariffs for a country or a group of countries e.g. by specifying a tariff reduction formula. A tariff reduction simulation can include one or more scenarios.
Schedule of concessions
In general, schedule of concessions stands for a WTO member's list of commitments on market access (bound tariff rates, access to services markets). Goods schedules can include commitments on agricultural subsidies and domestic support. Services commitments include bindings on national treatment.
Seasonal duties
Seasonal duties are duties applicable at certain times of the year, usually in connection with agricultural products. For example, imports of "Fresh perry pears, in bulk" from 1 August to 31 December may enter free of duty, while in other months, positive duties (seasonal duty) are applied. See multi-agency classifications of NTMs.
Seasonal quotas
Seasonal quotas are quotas established for a given period of the year, usually set for certain agricultural goods when domestic harvest is in abundance (e.g. quota for import of strawberries is established for imports from March to June each year). See multi-agency classifications of NTMs.
sector is a portion of the economy producing a particular category of goods or services. The terms also refers to one of the 21 sectors within the Harmonised System (HS).
Service charges
Service charges are fees charged against inspections, quarantines or other services provided by the customs authorities. They include custom inspection, processing and servicing fees as well as merchandise handling or storing fees. See multi-agency classifications of NTMs.
Single-column tariff
A single-column tariff is a simple schedule of duties in which the rate applies to imports from all countries on the same basis.  
South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA)
The SAFTA Agreement was signed on 6 January 2004 during Twelfth SAARC Summit held in Islamabad, Pakistan. The Agreement entered into force on 1 January 2006, and the subsequent Trade Liberalization Programme commenced from 1st July 2006. The 7 members of SAFTA are Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
South Pacific Regional Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement (SPARTECA)
SPARTECA is an agreement, which entered into force on 1 January 1981, giving countries located in the South Pacific preferential nonreciprocal access to Australia and New Zealand. Members include Cook Island, Australia, Fiji, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Kiribati, and Niue.
Southern African Customs Union (SACU)
The SACU consists of Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland. It covers the free flow of goods between the partners. A common external tariff is applied to non-members.
Southern African Development Community (SADC)
The SADC is an association of 15 southern African states: Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Its goal is to further socio-economic cooperation and integration as well as political and security cooperation among its member states.
Specific tariff
A specific tariff is a tariff charged as fixed amount per quantity unit such as $100 per ton. 
Standard International Trade Classification (SITC)
SITC is a classification intended to categorize trade statistics into large economic classes of commodities, maintained by the United Nations.
Swiss formula
The Swiss formula is a formula devised during the Tokyo Round for reducing tariffs in a manner that would harmonize them. The formula is tnew=(toldM)/(told+M), where the t's are the new and old tariffs, in percent, and M is a coefficient which also turns out to equal the maximum possible new tariff rate.
Tariff binding
Tariff binding is a commitment not to increase a rate of duty beyond an agreed level. Once a rate of duty is bound, it may not be raised without compensating the affected parties.
Tariff escalation
In the case of tariff escalation, import duties are higher on semi-processed products than on raw materials, and higher still on finished products. This practice protects domestic processing industries and discourages the development of processing activity in the countries where raw materials originate.
Tariff peak
tariff peak is a relatively high tariff, usually on “sensitive” products, amidst generally low tariff levels. For industrialized countries, tariffs above 15% are generally recognized as “tariff peaks”.
Tariff rate quota
A tariff rate quota is a combination of an import tariff and an import quota in which imports below a specified quantity enter at a low (or zero) tariff and imports above that quantity enter at a higher tariff. A tariff quota has thus two parts, the Inside Quota Tariff Rate and the Outside Quota Tariff Rate.
Tariff reduction simulation
Tariff reduction simulation module available in Market Access Map allows users to apply various tariff reduction formulas to produce tariff schedules before and after a tariff reduction. This back to back comparison of pre and post liberalisation rates helps to prepare for trade negotiations and evaluate the impact of each formula on the final tariff schedule.
Tariff regime
A tariff regime is a set of tariff rates covering all products for a particular importing country, exporting country, preferential status (specific preferences or MFN/General rates) and time period.
Tariff schedule
A tariff schedule is the list of all of a country's tariffs, organized by product
Tariff wall
Tariff wall is a term used for a tariff that is sufficiently high to prevent imports of a product.
Tariff wedge
A tariff wedge is the difference between the tariff of the more processed product and the tariff on the less processed products that are transformed into the more processed product. See tariff escalation
Tariffs are customs duties on merchandise imports, levied either on an ad valorem basis (percentage of value) or on a specific basis (e.g. $7 per 100 kg). Tariffs can be used to create a price advantage for similar locally-produced goods and for raising government revenues. Trade remedy measures and taxes are not considered to be tariffs. 
Technical barriers to trade (TBT)
Technical Barriers to trade are measures referring to technical specification of products or production processes and conformity assessment systems thereof. See multi-agency classifications of NTMs.
Technical tariff
A customs tariff whose tariff rate is determined by specific technical factors of the product such as size or alcohol content (e.g a 9% tariff levied on dairy spreads with a fat content between 39% and 60%).
Testing requirements
A testing requirement is a requirement for products to be tested against a given regulation, such as performance level. It includes sampling requirement (e.g. a testing on a sample of motor vehicle imports is required against the required safety compliance and its equipment).See multi-agency classifications of NTMs.
Trade agreement
A trade agreement is a contractual agreement among two or more countries concerning policies affecting their trade relationship. Trade agreements may be signed bilaterally or multilaterally and may concern several types of measures such tariffs, nontariff barriers or prohibitions.
Trade balancing measures
Trade balancing measures are the requirements that the investor use earnings from exports to pay for imports. See multi-agency classifications of NTMs.
Trade Promotion Organization (TPO)
TPO are organisations to promote trade. See for example the India Trade Promotion Organisation (ITPO).
Trade remedies
Trade remedies include anti-dumping duties, countervailing measures or safeguards measures.
Trade Support Institution (TSI)
Trade support institutions (TSIs) are national institutions charged with enhancing both the international competitiveness of the business community and their integration into the global economy. For more information see the ITC webpage on TSIs.
Truncated Swiss formula
The Truncated Swiss formula combines the Linear Formula and the Swiss Formula. It consists of applying the linear formula up to a certain rate (chosen by the user), and the latter beyond this rate.
Union Douaniere et Economique de l'Afrique (UDEAC)
UDEAC is an economic community for the enhancement of regional economic collaboration in Central Africa and includes Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, São Tomé and Príncipe and Gabon.
Union économique et monétaire ouest-africaine (UEMOA)
Unit value (UV)
A Unit Value (UV) is the average value of a single unit of an imported product. It is based on the total value of imports of that product divided by the quantity of imports.
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
UNCTAD was established in 1964 as a permanent intergovernmental body. It is the focal point within the United Nations for the integrated treatment of trade and development and the interrelated issues in the areas of finance, technology, investment and sustainable development.
United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD)
UNSD provides a global centre for data on international trade, national accounts, energy, industry, environment, transport and demographic and social statistics gathered from many national and international sources.
Uruguay Round
Uruguay Round refers to multilateral trade negotiations launched at Punta del Este, Uruguay in September 1986 and concluded in Geneva in December 1993.
Variable levies
A customs duty rate which varies in response to domestic price criterion.
Water in the tariff
The term water in the tariff refers to the difference between bound and applied tariff rates.
West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU)
The WAEMU is a customs and currency union created in 1994 between eight West African states: Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal and Togo.
World Bank
The World Bank's mission is to fight poverty and improve the living standards of people in the developing world. It is a development Bank which provides loans, policy advice, technical assistance and knowledge sharing services to low and middle income countries to reduce poverty.
World Trade Organization (WTO)
The WTO was established in 1995. It is the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations. At its heart are the WTO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world’s trading nations and ratified in their parliaments. The goal is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their business. The WTO is the successor of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) established in 1948.
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